The Gemara of the forth Mishna omits the opening first clause of the Mishna. The Rif commentary incorporates this omitted opening clause of the first Mishna.
ראה את המציאה ונפל עליה,ובא אחר והחזיק בה – זה שהחזיק בה זכה בה. (שבועות פרק ששי) שבועת הדינין – הטענה שתי כסף, וההודאה בשוה פרוטה, ואם אין ההודאה ממין הטענה – פטור. כיצד? שתי כסף לי בידך — אין לך בידי אלא פרוטה — פטור. שתי כסף ופרוטה לי בידך — אין לך בידי אלא פרוטה — חיב.
To what do the prophets compare the case of false witnesses? A person who lies under oath. ישעיה ז:יח-כ. The vision of Isaiah compares false witnesses to the din of g’lut decreed upon the entire nation of Israel.
In current news today, the Biden Administration condemned the Israeli courts for their ruling which decreed that the Army should raze the house of a Balestinian terrorist who murdered one, and injured several others. The Biden Administration justifies intervening in Israeli domestic affairs with the excuse that the house that the Israeli Army razed, that that house did not qualify as the primary living quarters of this American/Balestinian refugee terrorist. The Biden Administration condemned the ruling of the Israeli Court as collective punishment which violates that sacred nonsense term which imperialist governments just love to throw about whenever convenient, “international law”.
The Biden Administration seems to think it proper that Washington has some imaginary right to criticize Israeli court rulings. Perhaps Washington would agree if Jerusalem denounced American Supreme Court rulings, like Roe vs. Wade? The terrorist who murdered one and injured several, these Jews did not likewise have family who suffered “collective punishment” by the violence of terrorism?
Israel did not win its national independence, just so other foreign nations could presume that they have some right, “by international law”, to determine and validate, or invalidate, Israeli Courtrooms decisions on matters of justice within Israel. The Biden Administration assumes that their imaginary international law permits Washington to instruct Israeli courts and/or governments exactly how the State should implement justice within the borders of the Jewish state.
Israeli turns to the T’NaCH for guidance, just how to shape and determine Court rulings with stateless refugee persons. A foreign Balestinian refugee terrorist comes from abroad to wreak havoc and anarchy within the borders of Israel, to what does this foreign alien Arab seed compare? ישעיה כח:כג – כט, נד:ט -י. Goyim governments did not impose “collective punishment” to Christ killers? The incarceration of European Jewry into Catholic ghettoes without trial – not collective punishment?! In the opinion of this commentator, the Western Democracies need to step down from their high horse of arrogant superiority. Israel gave that Balestinian terrorist a trial, that’s a lot more than the Western democracies ever gave Jewish refugee populations.
מדרש רבה: ולמה לא בנו להן בהמ”ק
The construction of the Temple consisted of wood and stone? Or righteous Federal Sanhedrin Courts of law? The last mitzva which Moshe our Teacher occupied his energies, the establishment of the Small Sanhedrin Federal Courts within three of the 6 Cities of Refuge. Moshe had to choose which mitzva he felt qualified as the greatest mitzva of accepting the revelation of the Torah at Sinai. Moshe our Teacher chose “the construction” of the Federal Small Sanhedrin Courts of lateral Common Law, as the last mitzva he chose to invest his life doing before he passed from this world. Herein defines the Last Will and Testament which Moshe our Teacher instructed to all the generations of the brit Cohen nation.
This Midrash Rabba on Parshat שופטים teaches a profound set of fundamentals.
א”ר יהודה ברבי אלעאי, על ג’ דברים נצטוו ישראל בכנניסתן לארץ, ואלו הן: למחות זכרו של עמלק
Rabbi Yechuda in ברכות taught the k’vanna of kre’a shma through the spelling of לבבך\לבבכם located within the opening first two paragraphs of the kre’a shma. Avodat HaShem requires developing and maturing both Yatzirot within our hearts. The two ideally operate constantly in balance, they make up the scales of justice. If a man can mature his emotional mind, then such a man likewise matures and develops his rational mind. The function between the two sets of mental powers, the emotional mind of man always behaves as the first born son.
The Torah opens with the two sons of Adam and their life and death struggle to inherit the chosen Cohen first born status. Avraham likewise had two sons who struggled over the chosen Cohen first born status. Yitzak too had two sons who struggled over the chosen first born status. Hence Rabbi Yechuda, the Nasi, affixed the k’vanna of the mitzva of kre’a shma. The משל metaphor of wiping out Amelek as an eternal mitzva has its נמשל interpretation as the acceptance of the yoke of Heaven ie the avoda of the chosen first born cohen status.
ולמנות להם מלך
This 2nd condition goes hand in glove with kre’a shma. HaShem rules as מלך and HaShem – not a man. When Israel requested from the prophet Shmuel to appoint a king, rains came during the dry season – a sign of a curse.
ולבנות להם בהמ”ק
The prophet Natan advised king David; Natan taught that HaShem never commanded any leader of Israel to build him a house of wood and stone. Therefore the משל to build the בהמ”ק requires its נמשל interpretation. The נמשל interpretation: to establish lateral Sanhedrin Common law Courtrooms by which to pursue the rule of justice within the oath sworn lands.
ולמה לא בנו להן בהמ”ק? שהיו ביניהם דילטורין! (פ’: אנשי שדברו לשון הרע). דא”ר שמואל בר נחמן דורו של אחאב עובדי עבודת כוכבים היו, והיו יוצאין למלחמה ונוצחין!!!!! ולמה כן??? שלא היה בניהן דילטורין. לפיכך היו יוצאין למלחמה ונוצחין!
What ברכה does a man dedicate his life unto HaShem, not to speak לשון הרע?
השיבה שופטינו כבראשונה ויועצינו כבתחלה, והסר ממנו יגון ואנחה, ומלך עלינו אתב ה’ לבדך בחסד וברחמים, וצדקנו במשפט. ברוך אתה ה’, מלך אוהב צדקה ומשפט.
This blessing calls upon HaShem as our King. It likewise validates the k’vanna of acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven: to live our lives as the chosen Cohen nation, the k’vanna of kre’a shma. Its erev Shabbat, just prior to the 9 days of mourning which culminates in the fast of Tish’a B’Av. It truly grieves me to visit the beit knesset on Tish’a B’Av and hear the rabbis moan and groan about the destruction(s) of the two Temples avoda zara! The Romans said of Herod: Better to live as a dog in Herod’s house rather than as a family member! Herod knew nothing of righteous justice. The construction of that House, which the Romans later burned, a blessing upon the Romans for removing avoda zara from the midst of Israel! Shabbot Shalom.